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MEMORIAL SITES OF THE SPANISH CIVIL WAR AND EXILE AND PLACES OF TRANSIT FOR THE RETREAT IN THE GIRONA PYRENEES AND NORTH CATALONIA

 

The following list – not exhaustive but representative – is a geographical description in alphabetical order of the memorial sites of Republican exile in the Girona Pyrenees. Some of them are signposted and visited by thousands of people every year. The Exile Memorial Museum offers several exile routes for individuals and students (see MUME’s Educational Service).

 

Having been the main site of the Republican exile, the immediate territorial area and the counties closest to MUME are an especially vibrant setting for different routes and, therefore, an area of expansion of the MUME museum project.

 

Several signaling projects for memorial sites to border crossings and exile in southern France.

 

The Pays d'Art et d'Histoire Transfrontalier les Vallées Catalanes du Tech et du Ter (www.payspyreneesmediterranee.org) has broadcast since 2013 the heritage Memorial of the Spanish Republican exile in the Pyrénées-Méditerranée.

By way of information, the Memorial Democràtic and the Regional Council of Alt Empordà, in collaboration with MUME, have signposted a series of memorial sites of the Civil War and exile in Alt Empordà under the name of Retirada i Camins de l'Exili de l’Alt Empordà. (2009).

 

Agullana (Alt Empordà)

Coll de la Manrella. Place of transit for the Retreat (1939)

Coll de la Manrella. Monument to Lluís Companys (1981)

Mas Perxés (headquarters of the Generalitat and deposit for works of art)

School (ministerial headquarters)

“La Concòrdia” (provisional hospital)

Can Parellada (residence of the Republican General Vicente Rojo)

Can Bech (headquarters of the Republican Staff)

Can Bech de Baix (occasional residence of J. Negrín)

 

Signalisation of Memorial Democràtic (2009) and Bibliobús of Institució de les Lletres Catalanes (1939)

 

Coll de Manrella                                                                                                           Mas Perxés

 

 

Albanyà (Alt Empordà)

Hostal de la Muga. Place of transit for the Retreat (1939) to Custoja and Sant Llorenç de Cerdans

Access road heavily used by anti-Franco guerrillas (Maquis) between 1939 and 1970

 

Argelaguer (Garrotxa)

Pla de Tapioles (Argelaguer-Tortellà). Republican aerodrome

Place of transit for the Retreat (1939) to Custoja and Sant Llorenç de Cerdans

 

Arles-sur-Tech (Vallespir)

Retreat memorial (1989)

Provisional concentration camps

 

Argelès-sur-Mer (Roussillon)

Argelès-sur-Mer concentration camp memorial

Spanish Cemetery memorial

Valmy Castle (FFREEE [Fils et Filles Républicains Espagnols et Enfants de l’Exode] Association)

 

Banyuls-sur-Mer (Roussillon)

Memorial to escaped prisoners in France (1939-1945)

Coll de Banyuls. Place of transit for the Retreat (1939)

 

Camprodon (Ripollès)

Place of transit for the Retreat (1939) to Prats de Molló and Arles-sur-Tech

Torre Garcia, occasional residence of Negrín

 

Cantallops (Alt Empordà)

Coll de l’Auleda and Coll Forcat to Le Perthus. Place of transit for the Retreat (1939)

Mas Bell-lloc

Trenches and Francoist defence system of the “Gran Guardia” (1939-1945)

 

Capmany (Alt Empordà)

Bunkers of the Francoist defence system of the “Organización Defensiva Pirineos” (1939-1945).

 

Celrà (Gironès)

Celrà-Bordils aerodrome (the most important, together with Banyoles, in the province of Girona)

 

Ceret (Vallespir)

Château d’Aubry (Temporary store for the artistic treasure on its way to Geneva)

 

Cerbère (Roussillon)

SNCF railway station memorial (2005)

Coll dels Belitres memorial (FFREEE, 2006)

Coll dels Belitres exile memorial in (Memorial Democràtic, 2009)

 

Colera (Alt Empordà)

Railway bridge (Francoist military objective during the war, 1936-1939)

 

Collioure (Roussillon)

Collioure Castle-Prison for political prisoners (1939)

Tomb of Antonio Machado

Residencia Quintana (Antonio Machado’s hostel)

 

Custoja (Vallespir)

1939 border crossing

Retreat memorial (1989)

 

Darnius (Alt Empordà)

Mas de Can Descalç

Mas Can Palau

Cal Sot

 

Le Barcarès (Roussillon)

Le Barcarès concentration camp memorial (dedicated to the foreign forces recruited in the Second War World in 1939)

 

Le Perthus (Vallespir)

Border crossing (1939)

Bellegarde Castle (provisional hospital 1939)

Football field (weapons deposit 1939)

Retreat memorial (2006)

 

Le Boulou (Roussillon)

Railway station (departure place for women and children to the centre and north of France)

Republican Army weapons and vehicles deposit (1939)

 

Elne (Roussillon)

Swiss Maternity Hospital (1939-1942)

 

Esponellà (Pla de l’Estany)

Martís (Serinyà, Esponellà and Porqueres) Republican aerodrome

Air-raid shelter (Centenys)

 

Espolla (Alt Empordà)

Coll de Banyuls. Place of transit for the Retreat (1939)

Coll de La Massana. Place of transit during the War and the Retreat (1936-1939)

Memorial to the Maquis Celedonio García Casino “Celes” and Enrique Martínez Marín “Quique”, of the group of the guerrilla leader Facerias, who died on 26th August 1949 at Coll de la Dona Morta (municipal cemetery)

 

Coll de Banyuls

Figueres (Alt Empordà)

Saint Ferran Castle (military site partially blown up in 1939 / deposit of works of art during the Retreat / headquarters of the last meeting of the Republican Parliament)

Memorial in carrer de La Jonquera (2009)

Figueres-Cabanes Republican aerodrome

Air-raid shelters (plaça del Gra, Teatre Jardí, etc.)

Air-raids during the War and the Retreat (military objective / 230 deaths)

Organisation centre for the entry of International Brigades (1936-1938)

Prisoner classification and distribution centre (La Carbonera, 1939-1942)

War dead memorial (municipal cemetery)

Memorial to those from Empordà who died in the Nazi concentration camps (municipal cemetery)

 

Fortià (Alt Empordà)

Fortianell Farm-School (shelter for children evacuated from Madrid and training and instruction centre for International Brigade members during the war)

 

Garriguella (Alt Empordà)

Vilajuïga-Garriguella aerodrome

Francoist-German memorial (1939). Commemorative plaque to the German aviator of the Condor Legion Friedrich Windemuth, shot down on 6th February 1939 over Garriguella aerodrome by the Republican pilot Josep Falcó, flying a Chato.

Francoist bunkers and defence systems (1939-1945)

 

Girona (Gironès)

Air-raid shelters (Nursery, plaça Poeta Marquina, etc.)

Place of transit during the Retreat (1939)

Francoist prison in the Seminary

Francoist monolith (commemoration of the “First Fallen”, carrer Heroïnes de Sta. Bàrbara)

Francoist monument in plaça Diputació (currently removed)

Francoist monument to the 4th Navarre Division (1945, municipal cemetery)

Francoist memorials to “Those Who Fell for God and Country” (municipal cemetery)

Memorial to people from Girona who died as a result of Francoist repression (mass grave / municipal cemetery)

Memorial to people from Girona who died in Nazi concentration camps (municipal cemetery)

 

La Jonquera (Alt Empordà)

Coll del Perthus border crossing. Main place of transit during the Retreat (1939)

Exile Memorial Museum (MUME)

Francoist bunkers and defence systems (1939-1945)

 

La Manera (Vallespir)

Coll de Malrem (Beget). Place of transit during the Retreat (1939)

 

Camí de Coll de Malrem

La Tallada (Baix Empordà)

Canet Republican aerodrome

 

La Vajol (Alt Empordà)

En Negrín Mine (1937)

Coll de Lli. Place of transit during the Retreat (1939)

Can Barris (headquarters of the Presidency of the Republic during the Retreat)

Generalitat memorial (1979 and 1989)

Amical de Mauthausen memorial (1986)

Fundación Sabino Arana memorial (2001)

Exile monument (2000)

 

Coll de Lli

L’Escala (Alt Empordà)

Air-raid with 15 dead during the Retreat (23rd January 1939)

Francoist bunkers and defence systems (1939-1945)

 

Llançà (Alt Empordà)

Casa Marly (libertarian children’s shelter during the war; Ascaso-Durruti Colonia)

Place of transit during the Retreat (1939)

Francoist bunkers and defence systems (1939-1945)

 

Llers (Alt Empordà)

Explosion of arsenals during the Republican Retreat (1939)

 

Maçanet de Cabrenys (Alt Empordà)

Border crossing through Les Salines and Tapis to Céret and Custoja. Place of transit during the Retreat (1939)

Memorial to the Maquis who died at Mas de la Costa on 7th April 1950, Miguel Montané Escalas and Joan Platé Verges (municipal cemetery)

 

Maureillas-las-Illas (Vallespir)

Border crossing from Coll de Lli (La Vajol). Place of transit during the Retreat (1939)

Memorial to the fighter for the Republic

Hostal dels Trabucaires – Memorial to the Presidents Azaña, Companys and Aguirre on their way to exile

 

Molló (Ripollès)

Border crossing (Coll d’Ares and Coll Pregon). Place of transit during the Retreat (1939)

 

Mont-Louis (Conflent)

Castle-prison. Concentration camp for the 26th Brigade.

 

Olot (Garrotxa)

Deposits for Catalan art during the Retreat. Place of transit during the Retreat (1939)

Creu del Triai Francoist monument (1940)

Francoist monument to “Those Who Fell for God and Country” in Olot cemetery (1941)

 

Palol de Revardit (Pla de l’Estany)

Mas Borrell (place of shelter for forest dwellers)

La Roca dels Capellans (place of shelter for forest dwellers, at first mainly for priests and rightwing supporters and later for young Republican Army deserters)

Mas Clarà de la Mota (ambush of the Maquis Francesc Sabaté Llopart, “Quico”, 1959)

 

Peralada (Alt Empordà)

Peralada Castle (deposit of art and headquarters of the Presidency of the Republic during the Retreat)

 

Perpignan (Roussillon)

Mass grave at the West Cemetery

Memorial to Lluís Companys at the West Cemetery

Les Haras (refugee concentration and transit camp)

 

Pont de Molins (Alt Empordà)

Can Tretze Gully, between Pont de Molins and Les Escaules (murder of the Bishop of Teruel, Anselmo Polanco, and other military leaders of Teruel and 40 Italian prisoners by Republican forces retreating towards the border)

Francoist monument at the Can Tretze Gully (built by Republican prisoners of war, 1940)

 

Portbou (Alt Empordà)

Border crossing to Cerbère. Place of transit during the Retreat (1939)

International railway station

Exile memorial (Memorial Democràtic, 2009)

Francoist memorial to the 4th Navarre Division (1945, signposted in 2009)

Francoist bunkers and defence systems (1939-1945)

 

Signalisation of  Memorial Democràtic in Coll dels Belitres and Portbou  (2009)

Sculpture Installation Passagen - Dani Karavan (Portbou, 1994)

Port-Vendres (Rousssillon)

Cemetery memorial (in memory of hospital boats and the refugees who died in them)

 

Prades (Conflent)

Residence of Pau Casals and Pompeu Fabra

 

Prats de Molló (Vallespir)

Coll d’Ares border crossing. Place of transit during the Retreat (1939)

Coll d’Ares memorial (Prats Endavant, 2002)

1939 provisional concentration camps (summer camp, Le Cendrou camp, school, etc.)

Gracia Family memorial, symbol of exile (shepherds’ hut; Prats Endavant, 2008)

 

Exile Memorial of Coll d'Ares and Republicain Fighters Memorial of Prats de Molló

 

Puigcerdà (Cerdanya)

Bourg-Madame border crossing. Place of transit during the Retreat (1939)

Osseja provisional concentration camp (Cerdanya)

 

Py y Mantet (Conflent)

Camprodon and Setcases border crossing. Place of transit during the Retreat (1939)

 

Rivesaltes (Roussillon)

Memorial of Rivesaltes Camp  (In projecte and construction, 2013-15)

Concentration camp (1941-42)

 

Saint-Cyprien (Roussillon)

Memorial to Lluís Companys

Memorial of the former concentration camp (1982)

Concentration camp cemetery memorial

 

Saint-Laurent-de-Cerdans (Vallespir)

Provisional concentration camp 1939

Traditional Arts Museum (partially devoted to the Retreat)

Sta. Maria de la Sort Chapel (exiles’ shelter)

Retreat memorial (1997)

 

Sant Miquel de Campmajor (Pla de l’Estany)

El Collell Sanctuary (16th-19th centuries) (centre of military instruction, confiscated in 1936 and Fascist prison, called “Preventori L”, which had up to 1,300 interns, in 1938)

Francoist memorial in commemoration of the murder of 48 prisoners on 30th January 1939 (Agents of the SIM machine-gunned 50 prisoners, two of whom escaped: Jesús Pascual and Rafael Sánchez Mazas)

Francoist commemorative memorial of the death of Peter Ernst Harald Ullman Ekwall (1940)

Mas Les Carreres (shelter until the arrival of the Francoist Army of Jesús Pascual, who narrated the events in Yo fuí asesinado por los rojos, published in 1981)

 

Vidreres (Selva)

Aerodrome and Can Vall-llosera air-raid shelter

 

Vilajuïga (Alt Empordà)

Place of transit during the Retreat (1939)

Aerodrome during the Civil War (Garriguella-Vilajuïga)

Hotel for refugee children during the Civil War (Gran Hotel Central)